By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
To produce the digital video sequences of FoLu cells presented in this section, mitochondria were visualized with mEmerald, a green variant of EGFP with improved photostability and brightness. The peak excitation and emission wavelengths for mEmerald are 487 and 509 nanometers, respectively. In addition, the cells were treated with mCherry fused to a Golgi targeting signal in order to visualize the Golgi apparatus. One of the six original members of the "mFruit" series of proteins, mCherry has an intrinsic brightness of approximately half that of EGFP and exhibits peak emission at 610 nm.