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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Mitochondria in Fibroblast Cells

Objective: UPlanSApo 100x oil/1.40 Exposure: 450 ms
Microscope: Olympus DSU/IX81 Gain: 3
Camera: Hamamatsu ImagEM Interval: 2 s

In mitochondria, the energy released by the complete metabolism of sugars is used extremely efficiently. In the cytoplasm of an animal cell, as an example, for each molecule of glucose that is metabolized, two molecules of ATP are produced as a result of glycolysis. Mitochondria, on the other hand can produce 30 molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose. The citric acid cycle occurring in the matrix of the mitochondrion produces mobile electrons which are then sent through the mitochondrial electron-transport chain to support the necessary reactions for energy production. These reactions include the conversion of ADP to ATP in a process referred to as oxidative phosphorylation. In the digital video presented above, normal Gray fox lung fibroblast cells (FoLu line) are expressing monomeric green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) fused to the mitochondrial targeting signal from subunit VIII of human cytochrome C oxidase.