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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Epithelial Cell Mitosis

Objective: UPlanSApo 100x oil/1.40 Exposure: 100 ms
Microscope: Olympus DSU/IX81 Gain: 3
Camera: Hamamatsu ImagEM Interval: 7 min

Late prophase, or prometaphase, begins with the disruption of the nuclear envelope, which is broken down into small membrane vesicles that closely resemble the endoplasmic reticulum and tend to remain visible around the mitotic spindle. During this period the chromosomes continue to condense and gradually shorten and thicken until they have completely formed the units that will undergo mitosis. The nucleolus, which may still be present in some cells, also completely disappears in prometaphase. In the absence of the nuclear membrane, the mitotic spindle microtubules are now free to enter the nuclear region, and formation of specialized protein complexes called kinetochores begins on each centromere. These complexes become attached to some of the spindle microtubules, which are then termed kinetochore microtubules. Other microtubules in the spindle (not attached to centromeres) are termed polar microtubules and these help form and maintain the spindle structure along with astral microtubules, which remain outside the spindle. In the digital video presented in this section, pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 line) expressing mCherry fluorescent protein fused to histone H2B (red fluorescence) and mEGFP fused to tubulin (green fluorescence) were imaged in 7-minute intervals during mitosis.