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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Epithelial Cell Mitosis

Objective: UPlanSApo 100x oil/1.40 Exposure: 100 ms
Microscope: Olympus DSU/IX81 Gain: 3
Camera: Hamamatsu ImagEM Interval: 7 min

Living epithelial kidney cells, derived from the pig and grown in culture, are often used to visualize mitosis in the microscope because they contain only a few large chromosomes and the cells remain relatively flat throughout all of the division stages. Termed LLC-PK1, the porcine kidney cells afford clear visualization of the chromosomes, mitotic spindle, nucleoli, and other components during mitosis. At 37 degrees Celsius, LLC-PK1 cells undergo mitosis in approximately 2 to 3.5 hours and a typical healthy, growing culture can easily contain cells at every stage. In the digital video presented in this section, pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 line) are expressing mCherry fluorescent protein fused to human histone H2B (red fluorescence) and mEGFP fused to the microtubule end-binding protein, EB3 (green fluorescence).