By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
The protein vinculin is involved with focal adhesion and adherens junctions, which are complexes that operate as nucleation sites for filamentous actin and as crosslinkers between the external medium, plasma membrane, and the actin cytoskeletal network. Studies of vinculin have indicated that the protein is very dynamic and that by alternating between active and inactive forms, it can regulate cell mobility. Thus, vinculin may play a significant role in processes such as the healing of wounds and the development of embryonic tissue. In the digital video sequences presented in this section, vinculin was fluorescently tagged with EGFP, one of the brightest and most photostable fluorescent proteins developed from Aequorea jellyfish GFP.