By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
Peroxisomes and lysosomes were first described by Christian de Duve, who was awarded a share of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1974 for his efforts. Both of these types of microbodies reside in the cytoplasm, are roughly spherical in shape, and are delineated by a single membrane. They differ, however, in function and enzymatic contents. The enzymes contained in peroxisomes, such as catalase and D-amino acid oxidase, chiefly function to rid cells of toxic substances, particularly hydrogen peroxide, but also alcohol and other damaging compounds. In the digital video sequences presented in this section, peroxisomes were labeled with mCherry and the cytoskeletal actin network was visualized with mEmerald.