By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
The majority of the proteins conveyed to the endoplasmic reticulum possess a sequence of 5 to 10 hydrophobic amino acids on their N-terminal end. The greater part of these proteins is transported from the ER to the cellís Golgi apparatus for processing and packaging. If they possess a certain retention sequence of 4 amino acids (KDEL; lys-asp-glu-leu) at their C-terminal end, however, the proteins normally do not leave the ER. In cases where they manage to exit the organelle, the proteins are rerouted back to it once they reach the KDEL receptors present in the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus was labeled in the digital video sequences of fox lung cells presented in this section with mApple and mitochondria were visualized with mEmerald.