By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
The structure of the mitochondrion is complex and vital to the organelleís function. Each mitochondrion in a cell is encircled by two specialized membranes that delineate a narrow intermembrane space and the much bigger internal matrix. Each compartment houses a number of specialized proteins that allow the passage of only certain molecules. The inner membrane, which is significantly more selective than the outer membrane, is extremely convoluted and features numerous infoldings known as cristae. In order to ensure that only molecules essential to the matrix are allowed to reach it, the inner membrane of the mitochondrion uses a set of transport proteins that only enable the proper materials to cross the boundary. Mitochondria present in the fox lung cells presented in this collection of digital video sequences were visualized with mEmerald fused to a mitochondrial targeting signal and mApple fused to H2B highlights cell nuclei.