By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
In order for multicellular life to be possible, cells must be able to attach to the extracellular matrix. The process of attachment occurs via the construction of cell adhesion complexes that are comprised of several cytoplasmic proteins and specialized receptors known as integrins. Paxillin is one of the cytoplasmic proteins involved in the formation of cell adhesion complexes. By employing a mEmerald-paxillin fusion tag, focal adhesions were visualized in the fox lung cells appearing in the digital video sequences presented in this section. In addition, microtubules were targeted with mApple fused to tubulin.