By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
In migrating cells, focal adhesions are very dynamic structures. The complexes, which can contain more than 100 different proteins, are assembled along the leading edge of a cell as new points of contact are made with the extracellular matrix. Focal adhesions then act as anchors that the cell can use to help push or pull itself over the matrix. As the cell progresses, some focal adhesions approach its trailing edge and must be disassembled in order that the cell may continue along its chosen path. Focal adhesions were targeted in the fox lung cells featured in the digital video sequences in this section with mEmerald fused to zyxin. The cells were additionally treated with a chimera of mCherry and Lifeact, labeling the F-actin cytoskeletal network.