By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
The organelle in the cell that is generally considered akin to a distribution and shipping department for chemical products is the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus receives tiny vesicles filled with proteins and lipids initially built in the endoplasmic reticulum. The vesicles fuse with the membranes of the Golgi apparatus, releasing the chemicals into the interior of the organelle. There the compounds are further processed by the Golgi apparatus before being extruded in vesicles that are directed to their final destinations either within or outside of the cell. Mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus are labeled in the digital video sequences in this section with YPet and mApple, respectively.