By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
A variety of cellular molecules, including integrins, selectins, catenins, and cadherins, work together to facilitate interaction between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix. VE-cadherin is a member of the cadherin family of adhesion molecules specific to inter-endothelial cell junctions. At least two other types of cadherins are also expressed by endothelial cells: N-cadherin and P-cadherin. Studies have indicated that P-cadherin is present in only very small amounts and that N-cadherin is spread diffusely throughout endothelial cells. VE-cadherin was targeted in the pig kidney cells featured in the digital video sequence presented in this section with mApple and mEGFP.