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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Pig Kidney (LLC-PK1) Cells with mCherry-Rab4a and mEmerald-Rab5a

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Two of the Rab family of proteins involved in vesicle trafficking were targeted in a specimen of pig kidney cells. Rab5a was tagged with the green fluorescent protein mEmerald and Rab4a was fluorescently labeled with mCherry. The Rab5a protein is a marker of early endosomes, while Rab4a is a marker of recycling endosomes. In addition to these two endosomal types, cells also contain a third form of endosome known as the late endosome. Markers of late endosomes include Rab7 and Rab9.