By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
Research involving VE-cadherin and inter-endothelial cell junctions suggests that the protein is significantly involved in the maintenance of proper endothelial permeability. When VE-cadherin is inhibited, the permeability between endothelial cells, as well as transmigration, increases. In the late 1990s, scientists identified an adhesion molecule very similar to VE-cadherin, but that does not appear to affect paracellular permeability or transmigration. The new member of the cadherin superfamily was dubbed VE-cadherin 2. Endothelial cell junctions were targeted in the LLC-PK1 cell culture featured in the digital video sequence in this section by fusing mEmerald to VE-cadherin.