By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
The term Src, an abbreviated form of the word sarcoma, denotes a family of tyrosine kinases that are proto-oncogenic. Generally animal cells contain at least one of the Src families of tyrosine kinases, the enzymes that are able to transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residue. The phosphorylation of proteins by tyrosine kinases is crucial for signal transduction in multicellular animals. V-Src is the mutated version of cellular Src (C-Src) that has lost its characteristic ability to inhibit enzyme activity. C-Src was targeted in the human osteosarcoma epithelial cells featured in the digital video sequences presented in this section with mEmerald, while H2B was fluorescently labeled with mApple.