By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
The digital video sequences presented in this section visualize the dynamic activity of endosomes, which were targeted with mEmerald fused to the early endosomal marker Rab5a, in relation to the nucleus, tagged with mApple fused to H2B. The formation of endosomes occurs through a complex family of processes collectively referred to as endocytosis. The three key types of endocytosis are pinocytosis, phagocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis. Similar to the complexity of their origin, the activity of endosomes once they are released into the cytoplasm is varied and requires multiple steps to complete.