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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Mitochondria and the Golgi Complex

Objective: UPlanSApo 100x oil/1.40 Exposure: 300 ms
Microscope: Olympus DSU/IX81 Gain: 3
Camera: Hamamatsu ImagEM Interval: 2 s

Proteins, carbohydrates, phospholipids, and other molecules formed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported to the Golgi apparatus to be biochemically modified during their transition from the cis to the trans poles of the complex. Enzymes present in the Golgi lumen modify the carbohydrate (or sugar) portion of glycoproteins by adding or subtracting individual sugar monomers. In addition, the Golgi apparatus manufactures a variety of macromolecules on its own, including a variety of polysaccharides. The Golgi complex in plant cells produces pectins and other polysaccharides specifically needed for plant structure and metabolism. The products exported by the Golgi apparatus through the trans face eventually fuse with the plasma membrane of the cell. Among the most important duties of the Golgi apparatus is to sort the wide variety of macromolecules produced by the cell and target them for distribution to their proper location. Specialized molecular identification labels or tags, such as phosphate groups, are added by the Golgi enzymes to aid in this sorting effort. The digital video presented in this section illustrates the interplay between mitochondria (labeled with DsRed fluorescent protein) and the Golgi complex (labeled with mEGFP) in Gray fox lung (FoLu line) fibroblast cells.