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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Mitochondria and the Golgi Complex

Objective: UPlanSApo 100x oil/1.40 Exposure: 300 ms
Microscope: Olympus DSU/IX81 Gain: 3
Camera: Hamamatsu ImagEM Interval: 2 s

The Golgi apparatus is often considered the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products. It modifies proteins and lipids (fats) that have been built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export outside of the cell or for transport to other locations in the cell. Proteins and lipids built in the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum bud off in tiny bubble-like vesicles that move through the cytoplasm until they reach the Golgi complex. The vesicles fuse with the Golgi membranes and release their internally stored molecules into the organelle. Once inside, the compounds are further processed by the Golgi apparatus, which adds molecules or chops tiny pieces off the ends. When completed, the product is extruded from the Golgi in a vesicle and directed to its final destination inside or outside the cell. The exported products are secretions of proteins or glycoproteins that are part of the cell's function in the organism. Other products are returned to the endoplasmic reticulum or may undergo maturation to become lysosomes. The digital video presented in this section illustrates the interplay between mitochondria (labeled with DsRed fluorescent protein) and the Golgi complex (labeled with mEGFP) in Gray fox lung (FoLu line) fibroblast cells.