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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Microtubule EB3 in Fibroblast Cells

Objective: UPlanSApo 100x oil/1.40 Exposure: 500 ms
Microscope: Olympus DSU/IX81 Gain: 3
Camera: Hamamatsu ImagEM Interval: 2 s

Microtubules transport vesicles, organelles, and other biological macromolecules throughout the cell. Distribution is regulated by motor proteins that ferry, for instance, secretory vesicles for export from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Mitochondria are transported back and forth through the cytoplasm by microtubules, while nerve cells use this ubiquitous network to translocate vesicles containing neurotransmitters along their axons. Motor proteins burn adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to fuel the transformation of their configuration and to travel along the microtubules. By altering their three-dimensional conformation, motor proteins move along the microtubule filament by releasing one portion of the filament and gripping another site farther along the polymeric tubule. The digital video in this section illustrates the tracking of microtubule +TIPs (plus end tracking proteins) in Gray fox lung fibroblast cells labeled with a chimera of microtubule end-binding protein EB3 fused to monomeric Kusabira Orange fluorescent protein, which is pseudocolored red for optimum visualization.