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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Mitochondria and Microtubule EB3

Objective: UPlanSApo 100x oil/1.40 Exposure: 250 ms
Microscope: Olympus DSU/IX81 Gain: 3
Camera: Hamamatsu ImagEM Interval: 500 ms

What sets the mitochondrion apart from other organelles within the cell is that they have separate DNA from the host, and therefore reproduce independently of other organelles and the cell as a whole. Mitochondria live symbiotically within the cell producing needed energy while feeding off the organism's abundant food supply. This case of endosymbiosis, it is hypothesized, arose millions of years ago when early mitochondria were autonomous prokaryotes and were engulfed, but not digested, by similar larger prokaryotes. Over time, the two organisms developed a symbiotic relationship with mitochondria trading ATP for the cell's abundant nutrients. The digital video in this section illustrates the interplay between mitochondria (labeled with DsRed fluorescent protein) and the microtubules by examining the tracking of microtubule +TIPs (plus end tracking proteins) labeled with EB3 fused to mEGFP.