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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Visualizing Endoplasmic Reticulum Dynamics

Objective: UPlanSApo 100x oil/1.40 Exposure: 400 ms
Microscope: Olympus DSU/IX81 Gain: 3
Camera: Hamamatsu ImagEM Interval: 2 s

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of flattened sacs and branching tubules that extends throughout the cytoplasm in plant and animal cells. These sacs and tubules are all interconnected by a single continuous membrane so that the organelle has only one large, highly convoluted and complexly arranged lumen (internal space). Usually referred to as the endoplasmic reticulum cisternal space, the lumen of the organelle often takes up more than 10 percent of the total volume of a cell. The endoplasmic reticulum membrane allows molecules to be selectively transferred between the lumen and the cytoplasm, and since it is connected to the double-layered nuclear envelope, it further provides a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In this digital video, pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 line) expressing mEmerald fluorescent protein (green fluorescence) fused to a targeting signal that transports the chimera to the endoplasmic reticulum were imaged in 2-second intervals to visualize dynamics.