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EMCCDs Article Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)

By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.

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Fluorescence Microscopy of Cells and Tissues

Serious attempts at the culture of whole tissues and isolated cells were first undertaken in the early 1900s as a technique for investigating the behavior of animal cells in an isolated and highly controlled environment. The term "tissue culture" arose because most of the early cells were derived from primary tissue explants, a technique that dominated the field for over 50 years. As established cell lines emerged, the application of well-defined normal and transformed cells in biomedical investigations has become an important staple in the development of cellular and molecular biology. This fluorescence image gallery explores several of the most common cultured cell lines as well as a variety of tissue sections, labeled with synthetic fluorophores using traditional staining methods and immunofluorescence techniques.

Bovine Pulmonary Artery Epithelial Cells (BPAE Line) - The BPAE cell line was initiated in January 1979 by P. Del Vecchio from the main stem of a pulmonary artery belonging to a young cow (Bos taurus). Pulmonary arteries, which extend from the heart to the lungs, are the only arteries in the mammalian body that carry dark, unoxygenated blood. BPAE cells are positive for bovine diarrhea virus, one of the most important known bovine viral pathogens, which causes a broad array of clinical syndromes that result in significant losses in the beef industry each year. In addition, BPAE cells are also positive for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme that is intricately involved in the maintenance of blood pressure and volume. Due to this fact, BPAE cells are often utilized in hypertension research as well as studies of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Fibroblast Cells (A7r5 Line) - Cellular products of the A7r5 cell line include myokinase, creatine phosphokinase, and myosin. This clonal cell line was derived by W. Carlisle from the thoracic aorta of an embryonic rat from the strain DB1X and possesses many of the properties characteristic of smooth muscle cells. The cells exhibit an increase in activity of the enzymes myokinase and creatine phosphokinase and exhibit a flat, ribbon-like morophology that differentiates into parallel arrangements of spindle-shaped cells. Many of the cells also exhibit a "fried-egg" appearance when isolated.

Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells - Cell lines derived from the Indian Muntjac have been of significant scientific interest primarily because the animal possesses the fewest number of diploid chromosomes of all mammals, with only six chromosomes in the female and seven in the male. Such a small number of chromosomes makes Indian Muntjac cells an ideal candidate for mitosis research. Moreover, in recent years, Indian Muntjac cells have gained a reputation for their usefulness as a model to study telomere biology.

Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line) - The MDCK line is commonly used as a general model for epithelial cells, which comprise the type of tissue known as epithelium. Chiefly found covering the internal organs and other surfaces of the body, epithelium is comprised of tightly packed cells that are organized into sheets. These cells secrete an extracellular matrix called the basal lamina at their base, which helps anchor the epithelial tissue to adjacent tissues. Epithelial cells also lack direct access to blood vessels and must, therefore, obtain oxygen and nutrients through diffusion, the same way that they are forced to rid themselves of metabolic waste products. Epithelia function in a variety of mechanisms, including protection, absorption, sensory reception, and secretion.

Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line) - The HJ1.Ov cell line was derived from the ovary tissue of a normal and healthy female Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), which is a relative of the wild goat specially adapted to life in the rugged, mountainous environment of the Himalayas. Developed at The Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) in Oakland, California, continuous cultures of HJ1.Ov cells exhibit typical epithelial morphology and grow adherently to glass and polymer surfaces in monolayer culture. The epithelium that surrounds the ovaries is continuous with the peritoneum that lines the body cavity. The modified tissue is generally known as the germinal epithelium, but the name is deceptive because the term was coined at a time when it was thought that the simple cuboidal epithelium was the source of germ cells.

Transformed African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line) - The COS-7 cell line was derived by Yakov Gluzman in the early 1980s from the previously established CV-1 African green monkey kidney line by transformation of the normal cells with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 (SV40) that codes for the wild-type virus T-antigen. The fibroblast line grows adherently to glass and plastic in culture and is generally utilized as a transfection host. COS-7 cells are susceptible to SV40 (tsA209 strain) at 40 degrees Celsius, and SV40 mutants with deletions in certain regions. Because of this susceptibility, COS-7 cells have been utilized extensively in research, and the cell line is often an excellent choice for transfection experiments with recombinant plasmids.